Recall that Information may be defined in four ways

Modality (in root) deals with information at the sink being

**Problematic**: "*might be*✔ or ✖"**Assertoric**: "*is*✔" or "*is*✖"**Apodictic**: "*must be*✔" or "*must be*✖"

**Error Rate**. ❶

Error rate is the probability *P _{e}* that a symbol

*Ŵ*at the sink is not the symbol

*W*emitted at the information source.

*P _{e}* is

**also**called

**'symbol'**Error Rate and

*P*is called

_{b}**'bit'**Error Rate. Typically

*P*can be determined using Fano's inequality. ❷

_{e}
*Next:*

Summary (p:4) ➽